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Install MongoDB on Debian

Overview

Use this tutorial to install MongoDB on Debian systems from .deb packages. While some Debian distributions include their own MongoDB packages, the official MongoDB packages are generally more up to date.

Note

This tutorial applies to both Debian systems and versions of Ubuntu Linux prior to 9.10 “Karmic” which do not use Upstart. Other Ubuntu users will want to follow the Install MongoDB on Ubuntu tutorial.

Packages

MongoDB provides packages of the officially supported MongoDB builds in its own repository. This repository provides the MongoDB distribution in the following packages:

Control Scripts

The mongodb-org package includes various control scripts, including the init script /etc/init.d/mongod. These scripts are used to stop, start, and restart daemon processes.

The package configures MongoDB using the /etc/mongod.conf file in conjunction with the control scripts. See the Configuration File reference for documentation of settings available in the configuration file.

As of version 2.6.4, there are no control scripts for mongos. The mongos process is used only in sharding. You can use the mongod init script to derive your own mongos control script for use in such environments. See the mongos reference for configuration details.

Considerations

For production deployments, always run MongoDB on 64-bit systems.

You cannot install this package concurrently with the mongodb, mongodb-server, or mongodb-clients packages that your release of Debian may include.

The default /etc/mongodb.conf configuration file supplied by the 2.6 series packages has bind_ip` set to 127.0.0.1 by default. Modify this setting as needed for your environment before initializing a replica set.

Changed in version 2.6: The package structure and names have changed as of version 2.6. For instructions on installation of an older release, please refer to the documentation for the appropriate version.

Install MongoDB

The Debian package management tools (i.e. dpkg and apt) ensure package consistency and authenticity by requiring that distributors sign packages with GPG keys.

1

Import the public key used by the package management system.

Issue the following command to add the MongoDB public GPG Key to the system key ring.

sudo apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv 7F0CEB10
2

Create a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb.list file for MongoDB.

Create the list file using the following command:

echo 'deb http://downloads-distro.mongodb.org/repo/debian-sysvinit dist 10gen' | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb.list
3

Reload local package database.

Issue the following command to reload the local package database:

sudo apt-get update
4

Install the MongoDB packages.

You can install either the latest stable version of MongoDB or a specific version of MongoDB.

Install the latest stable version of MongoDB.

Issue the following command:

sudo apt-get install -y mongodb-org

Install a specific release of MongoDB.

Specify each component package individually and append the version number to the package name, as in the following example that installs the 2.6.1 release of MongoDB:

sudo apt-get install -y mongodb-org=2.6.1 mongodb-org-server=2.6.1 mongodb-org-shell=2.6.1 mongodb-org-mongos=2.6.1 mongodb-org-tools=2.6.1

Pin a specific version of MongoDB.

Although you can specify any available version of MongoDB, apt-get will upgrade the packages when a newer version becomes available. To prevent unintended upgrades, pin the package. To pin the version of MongoDB at the currently installed version, issue the following command sequence:

echo "mongodb-org hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections
echo "mongodb-org-server hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections
echo "mongodb-org-shell hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections
echo "mongodb-org-mongos hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections
echo "mongodb-org-tools hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections

Previous versions of MongoDB packages use different naming conventions. See the 2.4 version of documentation for more information.

Run MongoDB

The MongoDB instance stores its data files in /var/lib/mongodb and its log files in /var/log/mongodb by default, and runs using the mongodb user account. You can specify alternate log and data file directories in /etc/mongodb.conf. See systemLog.path and storage.dbPath for additional information.

If you change the user that runs the MongoDB process, you must modify the access control rights to the /var/lib/mongodb and /var/log/mongodb directories to give this users access to these directories.

1

Start MongoDB.

Issue the following command to start mongod:

sudo service mongod start
2

Verify that MongoDB has started successfully

Verify that the mongod process has started successfully by checking the contents of the log file at /var/log/mongodb/mongod.log for a line reading

[initandlisten] waiting for connections on port <port>

where <port> is the port configured in /etc/mongod.conf, 27017 by default.

3

Stop MongoDB.

As needed, you can stop the mongod process by issuing the following command:

sudo service mongod stop
4

Restart MongoDB.

Issue the following command to restart mongod:

sudo service mongod restart
5

Begin using MongoDB.

To begin using MongoDB, see Getting Started with MongoDB. Also consider the Production Notes document before deploying MongoDB in a production environment.

Later, to stop MongoDB, press Control+C in the terminal where the mongod instance is running.