Install MongoDB on Debian


Use this tutorial to install MongoDB on Debian systems. The tutorial uses .deb packages to install. While some Debian distributions include their own MongoDB packages, the official MongoDB packages are generally more up to date.


This tutorial applies to both Debian systems and versions of Ubuntu Linux prior to 9.10 “Karmic” which do not use Upstart. Other Ubuntu users will want to follow the Install MongoDB on Ubuntu tutorial.


The MongoDB package repository contains five packages:

Control Scripts

The mongodb-org package includes various control scripts, including the init script /etc/rc.d/init.d/mongod.

The package configures MongoDB using the /etc/mongod.conf file in conjunction with the control scripts.

As of version 2.6.0, there are no control scripts for mongos. The mongos process is used only in sharding. You can use the mongod init script to derive your own mongos control script.


You cannot install this package concurrently with the mongodb, mongodb-server, or mongodb-clients packages that your release of Debian may include.

Install MongoDB

The Debian package management tools (i.e. dpkg and apt) ensure package consistency and authenticity by requiring that distributors sign packages with GPG keys.


Import the public key used by the package management system.

Issue the following command to add the MongoDB public GPG Key to the system key ring.

sudo apt-key adv --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv 7F0CEB10

Create a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb.list file for MongoDB.

Create the list file using the following command:

echo 'deb http://downloads-distro.mongodb.org/repo/debian-sysvinit dist 10gen' | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb.list

Reload local package database.

Issue the following command to reload the local package database:

sudo apt-get update

Install the MongoDB packages.

You can install either the latest stable version of MongoDB Enterprise or a specific version of MongoDB Enterprise.

Install the latest stable version of MongoDB Enterprise.

Issue the following command:

sudo apt-get install mongodb-org

Install a specific release of MongoDB Enterprise.

Specify each component package individually and append the version number to the package name, as in the following example that installs the 2.6.1 release of MongoDB:

apt-get install mongodb-org=2.6.1 mongodb-org-server=2.6.1 mongodb-org-shell=2.6.1 mongodb-org-mongos=2.6.1 mongodb-org-tools=2.6.1

Pin a specific version of MongoDB Enterprise.

Although you can specify any available version of MongoDB Enterprise, apt-get will upgrade the packages when a newer version becomes available. To prevent unintended upgrades, pin the package. To pin the version of MongoDB at the currently installed version, issue the following command sequence:

echo "mongodb-org hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections
echo "mongodb-org-server hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections
echo "mongodb-org-shell hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections
echo "mongodb-org-mongos hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections
echo "mongodb-org-tools hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections

Previous versions of MongoDB packages use different naming conventions. See the 2.4 version of documentation for more information.

Run MongoDB

The MongoDB instance stores its data files in /var/lib/mongo and its log files in /var/log/mongo, and runs using the mongod user account. If you change the user that runs the MongoDB process, you must modify the access control rights to the /var/lib/mongo and /var/log/mongo directories.


Start MongoDB.

Issue the following command to start mongod:

sudo /etc/init.d/mongod start

Verify that MongoDB has started successfully

Verify that the mongod process has started successfully by checking the contents of the log file at /var/log/mongodb/mongod.log.


Stop MongoDB.

As needed, you can stop the mongod process by issuing the following command:

sudo /etc/init.d/mongod stop

Restart MongoDB.

Issue the following command to restart mongod:

sudo /etc/init.d/mongod restart

Begin using MongoDB.

To begin using MongoDB, see Getting Started with MongoDB.