This tutorial outlines the steps to install MongoDB on Debian systems. The tutorial uses .deb packages to install. While some Debian distributions include their own MongoDB packages, the official MongoDB packages are generally more up to date.
This tutorial applies to both Debian systems and versions of Ubuntu Linux prior to 9.10 “Karmic” which do not use Upstart. Other Ubuntu users will want to follow the Install MongoDB on Ubuntu tutorial.
The downloads repository provides the mongodb-10gen package, which contains the latest stable release. Additionally you can install previous releases of MongoDB.
You cannot install this package concurrently with the mongodb, mongodb-server, or mongodb-clients packages that your release of Debian may include.
The Debian package management tools (i.e. dpkg and apt) ensure package consistency and authenticity by requiring that distributors sign packages with GPG keys.
Create a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb.list file
echo 'deb http://downloads-distro.mongodb.org/repo/debian-sysvinit dist 10gen' | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb.list
Issue the following command to reload the local package database:
sudo apt-get update
Issue the following command to install the latest stable version of MongoDB:
sudo apt-get install mongodb-10gen
When this command completes, you have successfully installed MongoDB!
You can use the mongodb-10gen package to install previous versions of MongoDB. To install a specific release, append the version number to the package name, as in the following example:
apt-get install mongodb-10gen=2.2.3
This will install the 2.2.3 release of MongoDB. You can specify any available version of MongoDB; however apt-get will upgrade the mongodb-10gen package when a newer version becomes available. Use the following pinning procedure to prevent unintended upgrades.
To pin a package, issue the following command at the system prompt to pin the version of MongoDB at the currently installed version:
echo "mongodb-10gen hold" | sudo dpkg --set-selections
The packages include various control scripts, including the init script /etc/rc.d/init.d/mongod. These packages configure MongoDB using the /etc/mongod.conf file in conjunction with the control scripts.
The MongoDB instance stores its data files in the /var/lib/mongo and its log files in /var/log/mongo, and run using the mongod user account. If you change the user that runs the MongoDB process, you must modify the access control rights to the /var/lib/mongo and /var/log/mongo directories.
Issue the following command to start mongod:
sudo /etc/init.d/mongodb start
You can verify that mongod has started successfully by checking the contents of the log file at /var/log/mongodb/mongodb.log.