OPTIONS

$concat (aggregation)

$concat

New in version 2.4.

Takes an array of strings, concatenates the strings, and returns the concatenated string. $concat can only accept an array of strings.

Use $concat with the following syntax:

{ $concat: [ <string>, <string>, ... ] }

If array element has a value of null or refers to a field that is missing, $concat will return null.

Example

Project new concatenated values.

A collection menu contains the documents that stores information on menu items separately in the section, the category and the type fields, as in the following:

{ _id: 1, item: { sec: "dessert", category: "pie", type: "apple" } }
{ _id: 2, item: { sec: "dessert", category: "pie", type: "cherry" } }
{ _id: 3, item: { sec: "main", category: "pie", type: "shepherd's" } }
{ _id: 4, item: { sec: "main", category: "pie", type: "chicken pot" } }

The following operation uses $concat to concatenate the type field from the sub-document item, a space, and the category field from the sub-document item to project a new food field:

db.menu.aggregate( { $project: { food:
                                       { $concat: [ "$item.type",
                                                    " ",
                                                    "$item.category"
                                                  ]
                                       }
                                }
                   }
                 )

The operation returns the following result set where the food field contains the concatenated strings:

{
  "result" : [
               { "_id" : 1, "food" : "apple pie" },
               { "_id" : 2, "food" : "cherry pie" },
               { "_id" : 3, "food" : "shepherd's pie" },
               { "_id" : 4, "food" : "chicken pot pie" }
             ],
  "ok" : 1
}

Example

Group by a concatenated string.

A collection menu contains the documents that stores information on menu items separately in the section, the category and the type fields, as in the following:

{ _id: 1, item: { sec: "dessert", category: "pie", type: "apple" } }
{ _id: 2, item: { sec: "dessert", category: "pie", type: "cherry" } }
{ _id: 3, item: { sec: "main", category: "pie", type: "shepherd's" } }
{ _id: 4, item: { sec: "main", category: "pie", type: "chicken pot" } }

The following aggregation uses $concat to concatenate the sec field from the sub-document item, the string ": ", and the category field from the sub-document item to group by the new concatenated string and perform a count:

db.menu.aggregate( { $group: { _id:
                                    { $concat: [ "$item.sec",
                                                 ": ",
                                                 "$item.category"
                                               ]
                                    },
                               count: { $sum: 1 }
                             }
                   }
                 )

The aggregation returns the following document:

{
  "result" : [
               { "_id" : "main: pie", "count" : 2 },
               { "_id" : "dessert: pie", "count" : 2 }
             ],
  "ok" : 1
}

Example

Concatenate null or missing values.

A collection menu contains the documents that stores information on menu items separately in the section, the category and the type fields. Not all documents have the all three fields. For example, the document with _id equal to 5 is missing the category field:

{ _id: 1, item: { sec: "dessert", category: "pie", type: "apple" } }
{ _id: 2, item: { sec: "dessert", category: "pie", type: "cherry" } }
{ _id: 3, item: { sec: "main", category: "pie", type: "shepherd's" } }
{ _id: 4, item: { sec: "main", category: "pie", type: "chicken pot" } }
{ _id: 5, item: { sec: "beverage", type: "coffee" } }

The following aggregation uses the $concat to concatenate the type field from the sub-document item, a space, and the category field from the sub-document item:

db.menu.aggregate( { $project: { food:
                                       { $concat: [ "$item.type",
                                                    " ",
                                                    "$item.category"
                                                  ]
                                       }
                                }
                   }
                 )

Because the document with _id equal to 5 is missing the type field in the item sub-document, $concat returns the value null as the concatenated value for the document:

{
  "result" : [
               { "_id" : 1, "food" : "apple pie" },
               { "_id" : 2, "food" : "cherry pie" },
               { "_id" : 3, "food" : "shepherd's pie" },
               { "_id" : 4, "food" : "chicken pot pie" },
               { "_id" : 5, "food" : null }
             ],
  "ok" : 1
}

To handle possible missing fields, you can use $ifNull with $concat, as in the following example which substitutes <unknown type> if the field type is null or missing, and <unknown category> if the field category is null or is missing:

db.menu.aggregate( { $project: { food:
                                       { $concat: [ { $ifNull: ["$item.type", "<unknown type>"] },
                                                    " ",
                                                    { $ifNull: ["$item.category", "<unknown category>"] }
                                                  ]
                                       }
                                }
                   }
                 )

The aggregation returns the following result set:

{
  "result" : [
               { "_id" : 1, "food" : "apple pie" },
               { "_id" : 2, "food" : "cherry pie" },
               { "_id" : 3, "food" : "shepherd's pie" },
               { "_id" : 4, "food" : "chicken pot pie" },
               { "_id" : 5, "food" : "coffee <unknown category>" }
             ],
  "ok" : 1
}
ON THIS PAGE